Why was iron working Important?
The fabrication of iron tools and weapons allowed for the kind of extensive systematized agriculture, efficient hunting, and successful warfare necessary to sustain large urban centers. Iron had significant ritual status in all these Nigerian states, in which the forge functioned as both a ritual shrine and sanctuary.
What did people do in the Iron Age?
African Iron Age people built a cylindrical clay furnace and used charcoal and a hand-operated bellows to reach the level of heating for smelting. Once smelted, the metal was separated from its waste products or slag, and then brought to its shape by repeated hammering and heating, called forging.
What impact did iron tools have on China?
This type of metal was too brittle for weapons, but it was excellent for making cheap iron plows, tools, pots, and art. An abundance of cast iron tools allowed Chinese farmers to increase and intensify agricultural production.
When did iron Working begin in Africa?
1st millennium BCE
Iron technology first appears in the African continent in the 1st millennium BCE, and the term Iron Age is generally used, certainly south of the Sahara, to describe iron-using communities in Africa until the modern historical era.
Why was iron working so important to farming?
By that time, much of Europe had settled into small village life, toiling the soil with bronze and stone tools. Iron farming tools, such as sickles and plough tips, made the process more efficient and allowed farmers to exploit tougher soils, try new crops and have more time for other activities.
When did the Iron Age start in Africa?
African Civilizations: An Archaeological Perspective. 2d ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Why was the use of iron so important in Africa?
Iron has a number of advantages over copper, brass, wood, and stone. The use of iron ushered in an Iron Age in Africa, with the expansion of agriculture, industry, trade, and political power.
Which civilization started the African Iron Age?
Key Takeaways: African Iron Age The earliest iron artifacts in the world were beads made by the Egyptians about 5,000 years ago. The earliest smelting in sub-Saharan Africa dates to the 8th century BCE in Ethiopia.
Why was iron smelting important in China?
Technology shifted from meteoritic to smelted iron. Malleable cast iron products had greater hardness and better ductility. Iron came into general use, making possible not only the forging of weapons but also the manufacture of farming tools. The Qin Dynasty (221-206BC) saw rapid development of the iron industry.
How did the development of iron change China?
Iron working became a highly coveted skill during these centuries, and as weaponry advanced so did the Chinese’s knowledge of smelting iron. A new form of iron replaced meteoric iron during the Chinese Iron Age called pig iron, which was easier to work with and malleable. It was also easier to cast, or set into shape.
How did the use of iron change the life of early man?
After a few thousand years, man discovered iron, which was stronger than copper. From iron, he developed a variety of tools and weapons such as axes, ploughs, sickles, shovels, spears, etc. Now he could cut trees, till the land and kill big animals easily. He made stronger and bigger wheels for the carts.
Where was iron metallurgy first practiced in Africa?
It is still not known when iron working was first practiced in Kush and Meroe in modern Sudan, but the earliest known iron metallurgy dates from Meroe and Egypt do not predate those from sub-Saharan Africa, and thus the Nile Valley is also considered unlikely to be the source of sub-Saharan iron metallurgy.
What advantages did iron tools give to ancient African civilizations?
Why and How are they used? Iron tools are used to provide people who had developed the technological process a major advantage. It was fashioned into tools for farming and weapons for hunting in Africa. Iron tools and technology was to produce items that were very valuable.
Why was iron important in Africa?
Iron played a central role in many societies of early Africa. It held both spiritual and material power. Physically, Africans used iron to create tools for agriculture, utensils for everyday life, and weapons for protection and conquest (Shillington, 2012, p. 45).